leghorn n : a stiff straw hat with a flat crown [syn: boater, Panama, Panama hat, sailor, skimmer, straw hat]
Nounleghorn (Plural: leghorns)
- A type of dried wheat straw, fabric made from it, or a hat made from that fabric.
- A member of a breed of chickens.
- The cartoon character 'Foghorn Leghorn' was obviously not actually a leghorn because he was much too big.
- ''"Leghorn" redirects here. For the breed of chicken, see Leghorn chicken.
Livorno was defined as an "ideal town" during the Italian Renaissance. Today, it reveals its history through the structure of its neighbourhoods, crossed by canals and surrounded by fortified town walls, through the tangle of its streets, which embroider the town's Venice district, and through the Medici Port characteristically overlooked by towers and fortresses leading to the town centre. Designed by the architect Bernardo Buontalenti at the end of the 16th century, Livorno underwent a period of great town planning expansion at the end of the 17th century. Near the defensive pile of the Old Fortress, a new fortress, together with the town-walls and the system of navigable canals, was then built.
In the late 1580s, Ferdinando I de Medici declared Livorno a "porto Franco", which meant that the goods traded here were duty free. The "Leggi Livornine" were laws which ruled between 1590 and 1603. These laws helped the trading activities of the merchant, freedom of religion and amnesty for some penance. Thanks to these laws, Livorno became a cosmopolitan city and one of the most important ports of the entire Mediterranean area. Many foreigners moved to Livorno; Jews, Armenians, Greeks, Dutch, and English were among those who relocated to live and trade. Some Moriscos (Muslim Spaniards forcibly converted to Catholicism), much later, also moved to Livorno (from Spain and during the 18th century).
During the Napoleonic Wars, trade with England was prohibited and the economy of Livorno suffered greatly. Then, in 1868, after Livorno became part of the new Kingdom of Italy, she lost her, by now, traditional status of “Porto Franco” and the city's importance declined.
Nowadays the Venice district preserves most of its original town planning and architectural features such as the bridges, the narrow lanes, the noblemen's houses and a dense network of canals which once linked the port to its storehouses. In the 18th and 19th centuries, Livorno, by then grown up and open to the world, had a lively appearance marked by neo-classical buildings, public parks housing important museums and cultural institutions, "Liberty" villas with sea views and the market.
The Museo Mascagnano houses memorabilia, documents and operas by the great composer Pietro Mascagni. Every year some of his operas are traditionally played during the lyric music season, which is organised by the Traditional Theatre of Livorno. Also the “Terrazza Mascagni”, a walkway divided from the sea by a handrail, is named in honor to Pietro Mascagni.
Up in the hills the Sanctuary of Montenero, which is dedicated to Our Lady of the Graces, the patron saint of Tuscany, is a fixed destination for pilgrims. It is famous for the adjacent gallery, decorated with ex-voti mainly connected to stories of miraculous sea rescue.
The "Monumento dei quattro mori" ("Monument of the Four Turks"), dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinando I de' Medici of Tuscany, is one of the most important monuments of Livorno.
In Livorno there is an important square called "Piazza della Repubblica" that contains two important monuments of Italian politicians. Thus, this square is also a bridge: in fact, under the bridge there is an old, big canal. Piazza della Repubblica is the largest bridge of Europe.
Another important monument is the old fortress; an old building made with red bricks that at the time of Medici defended the city from pirates attacks. It has 3 bastion, named “Capitana”, “Ampolletta” and “Canaviglia”. The old fortress was made before the Renaissance. The new Fortress, distinct from the old one, was made at the end of the 16th century.
There are some graveyards where foreign people who moved to Livorno used to be buried.
Politically, Livorno is one of the most left-leaning cities of Italy. The Communist Party of Italy was founded in Livorno on 21 January 1921.
There is a breed of chicken called leghorn, named after the city. This in turn gave its name to the cartoon character Foghorn Leghorn.
SportLivorno has a football team in Serie A, A.S. Livorno Calcio. The football club reflects the left-leaning tendencies of the city with Livorno Calcio's left-wing ultras.
DialectLivorno inhabitants speak a colourful variant of the Tuscan dialect of Italy named vernacolo, which is especially characterized by the popular interjection dé, which has a very wide range of meanings, usually recognizable only by the tone of the pronunciation, and a tourist is soon discovered if they pronounce the word as dè, because it is not the correct pronunciation.
There is a satirical comic/magazine written mainly in the Livornese dialect called Il Vernacoliere.
- Alfredo Muller (1869-1940), artist
- Armando Picchi (1935-1971), football player and manager
- Dario Resta (1884-1924), Racecar driver, Indy 500 winner
- Angiolo Tommasi (1858-1923), artist
- Samuel Uziel (Seventeenth century), rabbi and Talmudist
- Alberto Fremura (born 1936), artist
- Francis Levett, English merchant
Points of interest
leghorn in Arabic: ليفورنو
leghorn in Bosnian: Livorno
leghorn in Breton: Livorno
leghorn in Bulgarian: Ливорно
leghorn in Catalan: Liorna
leghorn in Czech: Livorno
leghorn in Corsican: Livornu
leghorn in Welsh: Livorno
leghorn in Danish: Livorno
leghorn in German: Livorno
leghorn in Modern Greek (1453-): Λιβόρνο
leghorn in Spanish: Livorno
leghorn in Esperanto: Livorno
leghorn in French: Livourne
leghorn in Indonesian: Livorno
leghorn in Italian: Livorno
leghorn in Hebrew: ליבורנו
leghorn in Javanese: Livorno
leghorn in Latin: Labro
leghorn in Lithuanian: Livornas
leghorn in Dutch: Livorno (stad)
leghorn in Japanese: リヴォルノ
leghorn in Neapolitan: Levuorno
leghorn in Norwegian: Livorno
leghorn in Norwegian Nynorsk: Livorno
leghorn in Occitan (post 1500): Ligorna
leghorn in Piemontese: Livorn
leghorn in Polish: Livorno
leghorn in Portuguese: Livorno
leghorn in Romanian: Livorno
leghorn in Quechua: Livorno
leghorn in Russian: Ливорно
leghorn in Sicilian: Livornu
leghorn in Simple English: Livorno
leghorn in Serbian: Ливорно
leghorn in Finnish: Livorno
leghorn in Swedish: Livorno
leghorn in Tagalog: Lungsod ng Livorno
leghorn in Turkish: Livorno
leghorn in Ukrainian: Ліворно
leghorn in Volapük: Livorno
leghorn in Samogitian: Lėvuorns
leghorn in Chinese: 里窝那